Melasma is a type of pigmentation that is primarily believed to be caused by hormonal imbalance and prolonged sun exposure. It appears as dark, typically brown patches on the skin, caused due to excessive accumulation of melanin in those regions.
- Dark patches on the skin.
- Excessive darkness in certain areas of the face.
- Brown spots.
- Uneven complexion
- Prolonged exposure to the sun can be a major cause for Melasma. Exposure to the UV radiation present in the sunlight stimulates melanocytes in the skin to produce melanin.
- Hormonal changes can also lead to occurrence of Melasma. An increase in hormones triggers excessive production of melanin. This is the reason why pregnant women are prone to a melasma termed as Chloasma. Birth control pills may also cause melasma in women.
- Stress is said to be a contributor in triggering melasma.
- Thyroid disease is also associated with Melasma.
- On average, darker skinned people are more likely to suffer from melasma
Here are some of the ways to prevent Melasma-
- Always gear up with sunscreen before stepping out into the sun.
- Minimize your exposure to the sun, especially when it’s at its strongest during noon.
- Wear protective clothing to shield your skin from harmful sun light.
- Look for alternatives to birth control to prevent hormonal imbalance.
- Adopt a good skincare routine with skin lightening actives to inhibit the formation of melanin.
Use of skin lightening ingredients such as-
- Hydroquinone for melasma- Hydroquinone reduces the number of melanocytes in the skin. The synthesis of melanin is decreased when melanocytes are reduced. Hydroquinone for melasma is no longer as popular of a skin lightening ingredient as it was, because of the fact that it harms the skin cells that produce melanin.
- Retinol- Retinol works by inhibiting the action of tyrosinase and dispersing the pigment. It also promotes cell turnover rate causing pigmentation to fade faster.
- Alpha Arbutin- Alpha Arbutin is a tyrosinase inhibitor that is considered a safe alternative to hydroquinone. Melanogenesis is caused by the enzyme Tyrosinase and Alpha Arbutin inhibits the action of tyrosinase. Unlike Hydroquinone, Alpha Arbutin reduces the formation of melanin without causing any harm to melanocytes.
- Vitamin C- Another treatment option is to use Vitamin C for melasma. It works by inhibiting the production of melanin and also provides protection against photo damage.
- Azelaic acid- Azelaic Acid is also a tyrosinase inhibitor which may reduce the appearance of melasma by reducing melanin synthesis.
- Kojic Acid- Kojic Acid is said to be one of the most effective treatments for pigmentation due to its fast action. It isn’t suitable for all skin types and results in skin irritation for some people.
- AHA- Exfoliating the outermost layer of dead skin cells and raising cell turnover rate can help minimise the appearance of hyperpigmentation. Alpha Hydroxy Acids work by loosening the bond between dead skin cells and effectively exfoliating the skin.
- Only women get melasma- Melasma is a skin type which can affect anyone regardless of gender. While it’s true that women are more susceptible to developing melasma due to hormonal imbalance, this doesn’t mean that men cannot suffer from melasma.
- Pregnancy is the only cause of melasma- Pregnancy causes an imbalance in the hormones which could trigger melasma. Pregnancy can be one of the many causes of melasma, it isn’t the sole cause. Other causes could be sun exposure, birth control, medication etc.
- Melasma cannot be treated- Melasma is one of the difficult forms of hyperpigmentation to deal with, but it is treatable. Pregnancy induced melasma may even sometimes subside on its own. With the right ingredients and appropriate precautions, melasma can be treated.
- Melasma is caused by diet- Diet is shown to have no direct effect on Melasma. Melasma is generally hormonal and is triggered by other causes such as pregnancy, excessive sun exposure and birth control.
- Deconstruct Clearing Serum with 2% Alpha Arbutin + 5% Niacinamide
This serum is developed with a concentration of 2 % Alpha Arbutin to efficiently remove hyperpigmentation and provide clear skin. UV protection and moisture are provided by the 5% Niacinamide, resulting in clearer, brighter skin.
- Deconstruct Brightening Serum with 10% Niacinamide + 0.3% Alpha Arbutin
It’s a potent serum with 10% Niacinamide and 0.3% Alpha Arbutin that helps eliminate pigmentation, tanning, and dark spots while also providing a brighter complexion.
- Deconstruct Exfoliating Serum with 18% AHA + 2% BHA (Salicylic Acid)
With a combination of 18% AHA and 2% BHA this serum can help tackle multiple skin concerns. The AHA exfoliates the dead skin cells away leaving a behind a bright complexion, while the BHA unclogs the pores and purifies the skin deeply.
- Deconstruct Vitamin C serum with 10% Vitamin C + 0.5% Ferulic Acid
This serum has a combination of 10% Vitamin C and 0.5% Ferulic acid, which provides anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and brightening properties. Vitamin C helps reduce the pigmentation while Ferulic Acid soothes the skin.
- What is the best way to treat melasma?
Melasma can be treated using skin lightening ingredients such as Hydroquinone, Alpha Arbutin, and Retinol etc. Another necessity in treating and preventing melasma is avoiding excessive sun exposure and using sunscreen diligently.
- What causes melasma?
Melasma is caused by sun exposure and can also be triggered by hormonal imbalance.
- Is melasma caused by sun damage?
Most kinds of pigmentation, including melasma, is a result of the UV radiation in the sunlight. But, melasma in particular can also be caused due to a hormonal imbalance in the body which stimulates Melanogenesis.